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Parent and teacher perspectives on children with DLD's daily communication


Bruinsma, G. I., Wijnen, F., & Gerrits, E. (2023). Communication in daily life of children with Developmental Language Disorder: Parents' and teachers' perspectives. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 1-25.

Key terms in this paper:

  • Communicative participation: being able to understand and be understood in social contexts, by using verbal and nonverbal skills.

  • Expressive disorder: individuals can understand language but have trouble expressing themselves with language.

  • Receptive-expressive disorder: individuals with difficulties in both understanding language and expressing themselves with language.

Aim of the paper:

This study focuses on understanding DLD children’s communication ability in daily life from parents’ and teachers’ perspectives. This study aims to:

  1. Explore the most challenging situations, and the type of challenges DLD children are experiencing from their parents’ point of view.

  2. Explore DLD children’s communication skills and social functioning in school from teachers’ point of view.

  3. Look at the relationship between delays in language and teacher’s ratings of communication skills and social functioning.

  4. Compare the challenges in children with expressive only and expressive and receptive difficulties.

What was found:

  • Parents of DLD children reported that DLD children find it the hardest to talk when around new people or when they feel stressed, tired, or emotional.

  • Parents noticed that the biggest challenge for DLD children was to express themselves clearly and make sure they are understood by others.

  • In school, children with typical language found social communication easier than children with DLD.

  • Teachers reported that DLD children’s social relationships with their peers and teachers is as good as typically developing children.

  • DLD Children with receptive-expressive disorder experienced more challenges compared to DLD children with expressive disorder.

What does this mean?

  • Children with DLD may find social communication hard both at home and in school.

  • Therapists can benefit from parents’ and teachers’ report on DLD children’s daily performance.

  • It might be helpful for therapists to focus on enhancing DLD children’s daily communication ability rather than only focusing on improving their language skills.

Where can I read this paper?

This paper is not open access. If you wish to read the full paper, please email and request a copy of the paper.


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